For individuals at a high-risk for lung cancer, lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) saves lives.
Several randomized-controlled trials have found that low-dose CT scans detect most lung cancers at an early stage and significantly reduce lung cancer mortality.
Below are the summarized results of three prominent lung cancer screening trials.
SUMMARY OF MAJOR LUNG CANCER SCREENING TRIALS
U.S. NATIONAL LUNG SCREENING TRIAL
Summary: The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using a low dose CT scan to detect lung cancer in patients considered high risk for lung cancer. Read the article here: Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Low-Dose Computed Tomographic Screening | NEJM
The study looked at 2 groups: A group of patients who received annual low dose CT scans and a group of patients who received annual chest x-rays.
THE NELSON TRIAL
Summary: The goal of this study was to determine if lung-cancer mortality for high-risk persons was significantly lower among those who underwent volume CT screening than among those who underwent no screening. Read the published article: Reduced Lung-Cancer Mortality with Volume CT Screening in a Randomized Trial | NEJM
Participants were randomly assigned to undergo CT screening at T0 (baseline), year 1, year 3, and year 5.5 or no screening.
MULTICENTRIC ITALIAN LUNG DETECTION (MILD) TRIAL
Summary: The goal of the MILD Trial was to assess the value of prolonged intervention. Researchers evaluated the benefit of prolonged LDCT screening beyond 5 years, and its impact on overall and lung cancer specific mortality at 10 years. Read the article here: Prolonged lung cancer screening reduced 10-year mortality in the MILD trial: new confirmation of lung cancer screening efficacy
The MILD trial included more screening rounds, longer follow‐ups, and a more moderate risk pool (those with a smoking history of ≥ 20 pack‐years rather than ≥ 30 pack‐years)